Llewellyn Consultancy
Llewellyn Consultancy
Llewellyn Consultancy
Llewellyn Consultancy

Research Papers

Below are a number of high quality published research papers on Energy Therapy

The Effect of EFT (Emotional Freedom Techniques) on Soccer Performance

By Tam Llewellyn-Edwards PhD * & Mary Llewellyn-Edwards BA**



This study involved the use of a short session of Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT) with two English ladies soccer teams.  It is a randomised controlled trial with a supporting uncontrolled trial.  It was designed to verify the results of an earlier similar American trial involving basketball players.  The results show a significant improvement in goal scoring ability from a dead ball situation following a short EFT session.  These results support those of the earlier trial.


There have been many studies on the effect of Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT) and other Energy Psychology (EP) therapies on psychological conditions, including depression, anxiety, phobias and post-traumatic stress disorder. However, even though significant success in the use of this therapy with individual elite athletes have been reported in individual cases there have been few statistically valid studies.

 A number of athletes in a variety of sports have reported large gains in performance after using EFT.

One statistically valid study which did investigate the effect of EFT  on a group of athletes (Basketball players) was that by Church. This current study is an attempt to confirm the results of that study independently and using athletes from a different sport (Ladies’ Soccer).

EFT was developed by Gary Craig as an abbreviation of the methods used in Thought Field Therapy (TFT), an earlier Energy Psychology Therapy developed by Callahan. EFT’s standardised procedure entails tapping on the end points of the acupuncture meridians while concentrating on the problem. A full  explanation of the procedure can be found in the EFT Manual .  A free shortened version of this manual is available on the Net.


In the present study a group of female soccer players were tested for their ability to score a goal from a dead ball situation before and after they had received a ten minute group session of EFT which was  aimed at stress reduction and the removal of emotional blocks against doing well at this task.  A control group was also tested and they received conventional coaching while the active group received EFT help. No attempt was made to make the experiment blind


                                        * Contact via TLlewellyn@AoL.com                       **Contact via Mairllll@AoL.com

© Llewelllyn Consultancy 2011 

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